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美国参议院通过西藏决议案

2018年04月27日 蒙藏疆 ⁄ 共 7930字 ⁄ 字号

 

 

美国参议院全票通过429号参议院始发的西藏决议案。429号决议案倡导由藏人佛教社区不受外界干预地自行选择转世活佛(包括将来的15世达赖喇嘛)。这样的倡议由国家级立法机构发起通过尚属首次。本决议案的通过是对中国政府干预的明确反对,希望决议案能为将来的相关议题提供指导先例。
    
    第115届国会
    
    第二次会期
    
    参议院始发第429号决议案
    
    美国参议院
    
    2018年3月8日
    
    莱希先生(代表他本人、范斯坦女士、克鲁兹先生和卢比奥先生)提交了如下决议案,并呈送外交委员会
    
    2018年3月22日
    
    由科克先生报告,无修订
    
    决议案正文
    
    纪念西藏1959年起义并成立“西藏人权日”59周年,并表达对藏人人权和宗教信仰自由以及藏人佛教社区的支持。
    
    鉴于,2018年3月10日是西藏起义五十九周年纪念日。当时的拉萨藏人担心达赖喇嘛的生命安全,自发包围他的住所并组织了警卫力量,要求中国从西藏撤军、恢复西藏自由;
    
    鉴于,据统计,为镇压西藏起义,中国政府杀害、逮捕或遣送“劳动改造”近87000名藏人,并迫使达赖喇嘛和数万藏人逃离家乡,流亡境外;
    
    鉴于,2018年3月10日是拉萨抗议活动的10周年纪念日,抗议活动从拉萨扩大至西藏全境,并遭到中国武力镇压;
    
    鉴于,根据国务院报道,中华人民共和国政府对西藏独有的宗教、文化和语言遗产采取严酷镇压,对西藏人权进行粗暴侵犯,对藏人进行法外拘留、酷刑折磨和“失踪”处理;
    
    鉴于,自2008抗议后的10年间,至少有152名藏人自焚,这些自焚者留下陈述或记录,呼吁西藏自由以及达赖喇嘛回归;
    
    鉴于,1961年在美国的支持下,联合国大会承认“西藏人民享有基本人权和自由,包括自决权”;
    
    鉴于,2007年10月18日,因为达赖喇嘛已被世界公认为道德和宗教权威,是西藏人民无与伦比的精神与文化领袖,美国国会授予他国会金质奖章;
    
    鉴于,在西藏、美国、印度、尼泊尔、不丹、蒙古、俄罗斯和其他藏传佛教徒居住的国家,达赖喇嘛被视为藏传佛教宗教领袖与精神导师;
    
    鉴于,美国国际宗教信仰自由委员会在2017年年报中指出:“中国政府声称自己有法律赋予的权利来选择下一世达赖喇嘛“,意在规定所有藏人佛教领袖转世必须通过中华人民共和国政府的批准;
    
    鉴于,中华人民共和国政府干涉藏传佛教领袖转世的认定与继位,以图维持对西藏的控制。其干涉行为包括1995年非法拘禁当时刚被认定的十一世班禅喇嘛,一位年仅六岁的男孩,并另外指定了一位中国政府选择的班禅喇嘛人选;
    
    鉴于,2011年,十四世达赖喇嘛宣布自己的私人办公室将负责指认十五世达赖喇嘛的工作,并提出“除了达赖喇嘛轮回转世的正当途径以外,任何包括中华人民共和国在内、带有政治目的而指认的达赖喇嘛继承人都不应被认可接受”;
    
    鉴于,1981年联合国大会通过了“消除一切形式的、基于宗教或信仰的不容忍与歧视宣言”,其中规定宗教自由包括“所有宗教均有根据各自教义要求,培养、任命、选举或由宗教领袖指定合适继承人的自由”,
    
    鉴于,国会一贯主张宗教自由是美国建国的初始理念以及立国之本,宗教信仰自由也是普世尊重的基本人权与自由,
    
    因而参议院决议:
    
    (1)确立2018年3月10日为“西藏人权日”;
    
    (2)确立参议院认可第十四达赖喇嘛尊者对和平、非暴力、人权和宗教理解的杰出贡献;
    
    (3)重申参议院对西藏人民的基本人权和自由的支持,包括他们的自决权和保护独特宗教、文化、语言和国民身份认同的权利;
    
    (4)表达参议院对藏传佛教领袖转世继承权的认识,未来西藏佛教领袖的指认只应当由藏人佛教社区内部来完成,这是藏人不可被剥夺的宗教自由;
    
    (5)任何来自中国政府的干涉西藏佛教领袖指定或继位,包括未来第十五世达赖喇嘛指定或继位的企图都是对包括西藏和美国在内世界各地藏传佛教徒宗教自由权利的侵犯,因而无效;
    
    (6)号召国务卿全面贯彻“2002年西藏政策法”的规定(公法第107-228号第五条B款- 22 U.S.C. 6901及后文),与享有共识的州合作,在适当的情况下,做出以下工作:
    
    (A)美国政府代表在与中华人民共和国政府官员交流时,呼吁或督促中华人民共和国政府或中国共产党停止对西藏宗教事务的干涉;
    
    (B)美国驻华大使应会见自1995年5月17日起被中华人民共和国政府非法拘禁的第十一世班禅喇嘛,否则应要求获得第十一世班禅喇嘛的健康与下落等确切信息;
    
    (C)国务卿尽最大努力设立美国驻拉萨办事处,以监督西藏的政治、经济和文化发展。

 

附:英文原稿

Calendar No. 363

115th CONGRESS
2d Session
S. RES. 429
IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES
March 8, 2018
Mr. Leahy (for himself, Mrs. Feinstein, Mr. Cruz, and Mr. Rubio) submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations

March 22, 2018
Reported by Mr. Corker, without amendment

RESOLUTION
Commemorating the 59th anniversary of Tibet's 1959 uprising as “Tibetan Rights Day”, and expressing support for the human rights and religious freedom of the Tibetan people and the Tibetan Buddhist faith community.

Whereas March 10, 2018, marks the 59th anniversary of the 1959 uprising in Tibet, during which the people of Lhasa, fearing for the life of the Dalai Lama, surrounded his residence, organized a guard, and called for the withdrawal of Chinese forces from Tibet and the restoration of Tibet’s freedom;

Whereas Chinese statistics estimate 87,000 Tibetans were killed, arrested, or deported to labor camps during the suppression of the 1959 uprising, which also forced the Dalai Lama and tens of thousands of other Tibetans to flee into exile;

Whereas March 10, 2018, also marks the 10th anniversary of a series of protests in Lhasa, which spread across Tibet, and which were suppressed by Chinese forces;

Whereas, according to the Department of State, the Government of the People's Republic of China is engaged in the severe repression of Tibet’s unique religious, cultural, and linguistic heritage, and is engaged in gross violations of human rights in Tibet, including extrajudicial detentions, disappearances, and torture;

Whereas, in the 10 years since the 2008 protests, at least 152 Tibetans in Tibet are known to have self-immolated, with statements or records left by these self-immolators calling for freedom for Tibet and the return of the Dalai Lama;

Whereas, in 1961, with the support of the United States, the United Nations General Assembly recognized the Tibetan people’s “fundamental human rights and freedoms, including the right to self-determination”;

Whereas, on October 18, 2007, Congress awarded the Congressional Gold Medal to the Dalai Lama, finding that he is recognized around the world as a leading figure of moral and religious authority, and is the unrivaled spiritual and cultural leader of the Tibetan people;

Whereas Buddhists in Tibet, the United States, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia, Russia, and other countries where followers of Tibetan Buddhism reside look to the Dalai Lama for religious leadership and spiritual guidance;

Whereas, in its 2017 annual report, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom noted that “[t]he Chinese government claims the power to select the next Dalai Lama with the help of a law that grants the government authority over reincarnations,” which purports to require all Tibetan Buddhist leaders to obtain the approval of the Government of the People's Republic of China in order to reincarnate;

Whereas the Government of the People's Republic of China has interfered in the identification and installation of reincarnated leaders of Tibetan Buddhism, as part of its efforts to maintain control over Tibet, including in 1995 arbitrarily detaining the recently identified 11th Panchen Lama, then a 6-year-old boy, and purporting to install China’s own candidate as Panchen Lama;

Whereas, in 2011, the 14th Dalai Lama declared that the responsibility for identifying a future 15th Dalai Lama will rest with officials of the Dalai Lama’s private office and that “apart from the reincarnation recognized through such legitimate methods, no recognition or acceptance should be given to a candidate chosen for political ends by anyone, including those in the People’s Republic of China”;

Whereas, in 1981, the United Nations General Assembly passed the Declaration on the Elimination of all Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, which provides that freedom of religion shall include the freedom to “train, appoint, elect or designate by succession appropriate leaders called for by the requirements and standards of any religion or belief”; and

Whereas Congress has long held that the right to freedom of religion undergirds the very origin and existence of the United States, and that freedom of religious belief and practice is a universal human right and fundamental freedom: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, That the Senate—

(1) recognizes March 10, 2018, as “Tibetan Rights Day”;

(2) affirms its recognition of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama for his outstanding contributions to peace, nonviolence, human rights, and religious understanding;

(3) affirms its support for the Tibetan people’s fundamental human rights and freedoms, including their right to self-determination and the protection of their distinct religious, cultural, linguistic, and national identity;

(4) expresses its sense that the identification and installation of Tibetan Buddhist religious leaders, including a future 15th Dalai Lama, is a matter that should be determined solely within the Tibetan Buddhist faith community, in accordance with the inalienable right to religious freedom;

(5) expresses its sense that any attempt by the Government of the People's Republic of China to identify or install its own candidate as a Tibetan Buddhist religious leader, including a future 15th Dalai Lama, is invalid interference in the right to religious freedom of Tibetan Buddhists around the world, including in Tibet as well as the United States and elsewhere; and

(6) calls on the Secretary of State to fully implement the provisions of the Tibetan Policy Act of 2002 (subtitle B of title VI of Public Law 107–228; 22 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.), in cooperation with like-minded states where appropriate, including that—

(A) representatives of the United States Government in exchanges with officials of the Government of the People's Republic of China should call for and otherwise promote the cessation of all interference by the Government of the People's Republic of China or the Chinese Communist Party in the religious affairs of the Tibetan people;

(B) the United States Ambassador to the People’s Republic of China should meet with the 11th Panchen Lama, who was arbitrarily detained on May 17, 1995, and otherwise ascertain information concerning his whereabouts and well-being; and

(C) the Secretary of State should make best efforts to establish an office in Lhasa, Tibet, to monitor political, economic, and cultural developments in Tibet.

Calendar No. 363

115th CONGRESS
2d Session
S. RES. 429
RESOLUTION
Commemorating the 59th anniversary of Tibet's 1959 uprising as “Tibetan Rights Day”, and expressing support for the human rights and religious freedom of the Tibetan people and the Tibetan Buddhist faith community.
March 22, 2018

Reported without amendment

                                                                           信息提供者:尊者达赖喇嘛驻北美代表处      

                                                                                     译者:蔡世雯

 

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