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中国给川普的600亿回击

2018年08月05日 国际关系 ⁄ 共 5597字 ⁄ 字号

 

 

China has said it will impose new tariffs on $60bn worth of imports from the US, including aircraft and liquefied natural gas, in a rapid riposte to Donald Trump’s latest threat to raise US levies on Chinese goods.

中国称将向价值600亿美元的美国商品征收新关税,其中包括飞机和液化天然气,这是对特朗普最新一轮威胁对中国商品征税的迅速回击。

 

In the latest salvo in the growing trade battle between the world’s two biggest economies, the Chinese commerce ministry said on Friday that its decision was a response to the US’s proposal to raise the rate of threatened tariffs on $200bn worth of Chinese exports to 25 per cent, up from an original plan of 10 per cent. Those tariffs could take effect next month. 

世界两个最大的经济体的贸易争端日益升级,最新的打击发生在周五,中国商务部宣布,决定做出还击,报复美方建议对价值2000亿美元的中国出口商品增加关税税率,从原计划的10%增加到25%。这些关税将于下月生效。

 

“The implementation and date of [Chinese] tariffs will be decided by US actions,” the ministry said. Beijing’s tariffs threat signals that the dispute with the US, which has unsettled financial markets and started to disrupt crucial global supply chains, is likely to continue escalating in the months to come. 

商务部说,“征税措施的实施日期将视美方行动而定”。中国征收关税的威胁表明,与美国的争端可能在未来几个月中继续升级,此前的经贸摩擦冲击了金融市场,并开始破坏至关重要的全球供应链。

 

Low-level talks have yet to agree on even the contours of further negotiations, with both sides showing no sign of backing down. The White House quickly fired back on Friday, calling China’s latest threat a miscalculation. “I am privy to what President Trump has been thinking and he is going to stand tough,” Larry Kudlow, the head of Mr Trump’s National Economic Council, told Fox Business television. 

低级别谈判并未对继续谈判的框架取得进展,双方都没有让步的迹象。白宫在周五迅速回击,认为中国的最新威胁错判了形势。特朗普政府国家经济委员会主席拉里·库德洛对福克斯电视台说,“我私下里知道特朗普总统怎么想,他会坚持到底。”

 

This week’s moves amount to a further slip toward the worst-case scenario of an all-out trade war between the two powers which the International Monetary Fund and others have warned could derail global growth. 

本周的动向相当于两个大国进一步滑向全面贸易战这种最糟糕的情形,国际货币基金组织和其他机构警告称这可能让全球增长出轨。

 

The $200bn tariffs threat updated by Mr Trump this week was in response to previous retaliation by China. Hawks in Washington believe that dialling up pressure on Beijing is the only way to force China into the policy changes it demands — such as abandoning industrial subsidies and what the US charges is a wholesale state-backed enterprise to steal US technology. 

特朗普先生本周升级对2000亿美元商品征收关税的税率,针对中国此前的报复。华盛顿鹰派相信,加大对北京施压是迫使中国做出他们提出的政策改变的唯一办法,例如放弃产业补贴,且美国指控中国大型国有企业窃取美国技术。

 

A White House spokeswoman said: “Instead of retaliating, China should address the [US’s] longstanding concerns about its unfair trading practices.” 

一位白宫发言人说,“中国不应该报复,而应该正视(美国)长期以来对不公平贸易行为的关切。”

 

But China has aimed its fire at politically-sensitive US exports and Mr Trump is also facing domestic pressure at home with business and farm groups rounding on him this week after he made the $200bn tariffs threat. 

但中国选择打击美国出口商品,而这些商品政治上敏感。特朗普做出对2000亿商品征收关税的威胁后,本周在国内也受到商界和农业团体的压力。

 

The threat of Chinese tariffs on imports of US LNG is a potentially serious blow to the hopes of companies planning to invest in a new wave of export projects in Texas, Louisiana and Alaska. 

对那些计划在得克萨斯州、路易斯安娜州和阿拉斯加州新一轮出口项目中投资的公司而言,中国威胁对进口美国液化天然气征税是一个严重的打击。

 

China is already the world’s second-largest LNG importer and the third-largest market for US LNG exports, and is expected to be by far the largest source of additional demand over the coming decade and beyond.

中国已经是世界第二大液化天然气进口国和美国液化天然气出口的第三大市场,未来十年以及更长时间内预计成为新增需求的最大来源国。 

 

Charlie Riedl of the Center for LNG, which represents the US industry, said: “Should these tariffs remain, China will source the LNG from other suppliers eager to fill the gap. This would be a tremendous missed opportunity and would have very real effects on the US LNG industry.” 

液化天然气中心的查理·里德尔说:“如果征收这些关税,中国将转从其他渴望填补市场空白的供应商手中进口液化天然气,这会让我们错失一个大机会,将对美国液化天然气业带来实质性影响。”

 

New trade data out on Friday showed that the US trade deficit with China was continuing to increase despite Mr Trump making reducing it one of his top economic priorities. 

周五的新贸易数据表明,美国对华贸易逆差继续增长,尽管特朗普先生将降低逆差作为其首要经济目标。

 

In the first six months of this year, the US deficit in goods rose to $185.7bn from $171.1bn in the same period last year, according to the US Census Bureau.  

美统计局数据显示,今年前六个月,美国货物贸易逆差从去年同期的1711亿美元增加到1857亿美元。

 

The finance ministry in Beijing said China would impose tariff rates of between 5 and 25 per cent. The commerce ministry said such a tiered approach was “reasonable and restrained”, but added that China also reserved the right to impose further tariffs. 

中国财政部表示,中国计划征收的关税税率在5%到25%之间。商务部表示,差别化税率是“理性和克制的”,但表示中国“保留继续出台其他反制措施的权利”。

 

The list of 5,207 US products affected by the new Chinese tariffs includes small and medium-sized aircraft, LNG, soyabean oil, lumber and auto parts. The 25 per cent tariffs cover the largest share of the overall list, encompassing 2,493 products. 

中国新关税影响了5207种美国产品,包括中小型飞机、液化天然气、豆油、木材和汽车零件。25%关税清单占比最大,包括2493种产品。

 

"The two sides have dug themselves in to their positions and shown no willingness to back off, despite the potential damage to their economies,” said Eswar Prasad, economics professor at Cornell University and former China head at the International Monetary Fund. 

“双方都认准了不愿让步,尽管这对各自经济体会造成损害,”美国康奈尔大学经济学教授、前货币基金组织中国负责人埃斯瓦尔·普拉萨德说。

 

Both sides have already imposed tariffs on $34bn worth of one another’s exports. China’s latest threat against $60bn in US goods — in response to the US threat against $200bn in Chinese shipments — reflects the heavy imbalance in bilateral trade.  

双方已经对对方价值340亿美元的商品征收关税。中国现在威胁针对价值600亿美元的商品征税,而美方提出了2000亿美元,这反映了双边贸易的巨大失衡。

 

The US exported only $129bn in goods to China last year against $505bn in imports, according to official US data, leaving Beijing less room to match the White House dollar-for-dollar. 

美官方数据显示,美国去年仅向中国出口了1290亿美元的商品,却进口了5050亿美元,这让北京没法和白宫等额对拼。

 

But the fight has also become about the two countries’ economic futures, with US officials portraying their aggressive approach to Beijing as a way to protect America’s economic future from a China that is intent on leading the world in areas such as artificial intelligence and robotics. 

但争斗已经事关两国经济未来,美国官员认为对北京咄咄逼人的方式旨在保护美国的经济未来,遏制希望在人工智能和机器人等领域领导世界的中国。

 

Likewise, Yanmei Xie, a political analyst with Gavekal Dragonomics in Beijing, said Chinese policymakers hade arrived at the conclusion that Mr Trump’s trade challenge was aimed at thwarting China’s technological advancement.

同样,北京龙洲经讯咨询机构政治分析人士谢艳梅(音)说,中国决策者作出结论,特朗普先生的贸易挑战,旨在阻止中国取得技术进步。

 

            出处 : 金融时报